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Battery basics Aug 11, 2018

Battery basics

A storage battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly into electrical energy. It is a rechargeable battery that is recharged by a reversible chemical reaction. It is usually a lead-acid battery, which is a kind of battery. , belongs to the secondary battery. Its working principle: the external electric energy is used to regenerate the internal active material during charging, and the electric energy is stored as chemical energy. When discharging, the chemical energy is converted into electric energy output again, such as the mobile phone battery commonly used in life.

It uses a lead substrate grid (also known as a grid) filled with sponge lead as a negative electrode, a lead substrate grid filled with lead dioxide as a positive electrode, and a dilute sulfuric acid having a density of 1.26--1.33 g/mlg/ml as an electrolyte. When the battery is discharged, the metal lead is the negative electrode, and an oxidation reaction occurs to form lead sulfate; the lead dioxide is a positive electrode, and a reduction reaction occurs to form lead sulfate. When the battery is charged by direct current, the two electrodes generate elemental lead and lead dioxide, respectively. After removing the power supply, it returns to the state before discharge to form a chemical battery. The lead storage battery can be repeatedly charged and discharged. Its single-cell voltage is 2V. The battery is a battery pack composed of one or more monomers. The battery is referred to as the battery. The most common one is 6V. Others have 2V, 4V, 8V, 24V batteries. . For example, a battery used in a car (commonly known as a battery) is a battery pack in which six lead batteries are connected in series to form a 12V battery.

For traditional dry-charged lead storage batteries (such as automobile dry-charged batteries, motorcycle dry-charged batteries, etc.), distilled water should be added after a period of use to keep the dilute sulfuric acid electrolyte at a density of about 1.28 g/ml; for maintenance-free batteries, It is no longer necessary to add distilled water until use is terminated.